乔治·卢卡斯教育基金会 庆祝30
批判性思考

如何使用日常对象让学生参与历史思维

要求学生从未来的历史学家的角度检查自己的财产有助于他们提高分析能力。

2021年1月22日
Colorful found kitchen objects
vedrana2701 / Twenty20

社会斯图dies students regularly consider the past through its written and material culture, whether that means diving into daily life in colonial America through letters or examining ancient coins to better understand the spread of the Roman Empire.

学生可以通过将这种方法应用于自己的日常生活中的项目来学到很多有关历史学家的工作。I’ve found that if I remind my students that in the future, our lives and culture will be reconstructed in a similar fashion, they’re intrigued, and if I challenge them to imagine what a student 100 or 200 years from now might infer when examining a contemporary artifact, they’re keen to get to work.

这似乎是一种非正统的方法,但是我的学生一次又一次地在这个历史框架内分析了自己的文物,并被推动以创造性和概念上的新方式思考。这项活动适合各种课程,因为它使学生能够练习评估文物的评估,从而可以从社会的物质文化中提出关于社会的假设,并权衡对历史对象的不同解释如何影响我们对过去的理解。

步骤1:解释什么是工件

“人工制品”根据National Geographic, “is an object made by a human being. Artifacts include art, diaries, tools, and clothing made by people of any time and place.”

When you introduce this activity to your students, emphasize to them how many objects fall under the umbrella of “artifact.” Musical instruments, written material, kitchenware, school supplies, jewelry, and athletic apparel are all artifacts.

学生可以通过查看示例,强调历史学家如何从任何物质文化的任何例子中得出重要的结论,从而受益。指向博物馆中的艺术品的学生,例如展示中in the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Ancient Greek pottery and Egyptian sarcophagi are artifacts, but so are the objects housed at theNational Videogame Museum,拉斯维加斯霓虹灯博物馆, and theInternational Banana Museum,拥有“ 25,000种与香蕉有关的物品和图片”。

步骤2:分享如何分析工件

一旦学生对这个定义感到满意,请回顾历史学家和考古学家如何分析文物。

国家档案鼓励学生首先在提出一系列问题之前,首先确定工件是由什么制造的,其中包括以下内容:

  • 谁使用它?原因你是这样认为的。
  • What was it used for? List reasons you think so.
  • 这告诉您制造和使用它的人?
  • What does it tell you about technology at the time it was made?

同样,国会图书馆提供检查的建议各种主要来源,并提供有用的analysis tool

Step 3: Have Students Choose and Research an Artifact

要求学生从个人生活中选择工件。如果您远程教学,他们可以将其带到学校或提交图像。

The next part is the hardest and takes some imagination. Ask students to pretend they are a researcher, archaeologist, or student in the future conducting a detailed analysis of the artifact in question, and have them answer the following questions about the artifact:

  • 它的意义是什么?
  • How does it exemplify the culture of 2021?
  • 这对21世纪初期的社会有什么暗示?
  • 它对2021年的技术有何评论?

这项练习要求学生取得多种认知飞跃。首先,他们必须考虑从现在起很多年的生活。其次,他们必须分析自己想象的未来生活的人。那个人会如何看待我们生活的世界?以以下方式将其与课程联系起来:

  • Assign a writing response in which students must make evidence-based conclusions.
  • 要求学生同行编辑另一个学生的结论,并密切关注支持索赔的方式。
  • Evaluate how differing interpretations of the artifact could shape the way history is made.
  • 考虑工件对信仰系统,商业,技术或社会组织的看法。

步骤4:在课堂上一起分析工件

Once students have gathered and analyzed their own artifacts, I ask them to share the artifacts with the class (physically if we are in a classroom or via an image uploaded to the discussion board if I’m teaching remotely) and task them with analyzing another student’s artifact in the same way they analyzed their own.

As I review the images and comments in real time, I call on students to further explain what their own artifact says about society or to elaborate on their analysis of someone else’s artifact. When I wasn’t teaching remotely, I also took my class on a walk around the school and had them analyze everyday objects, such as posters in the hallways, signs for upcoming school events, trophies, murals, and classroom resources, with the eye of an archaeologist seeing them for the first time.

A few of the everyday objects my students have identified as their artifacts were a family photo album, a school-issued iPad, and a Christmas tree, which led their classmates to make inferences not only about the student to whom the artifact belonged but about the larger society and culture. These discussions ranged from the technological proficiency and socioeconomics of a school capable of providing one-to-one devices to what a Christmas tree might tell us about religious or secular customs.

在虚拟的环境中,对工件的分析可以作为开放或关闭活动(对于后者,将其用作退出卡或最终讨论帖子)。要缩写练习,请学生回答有关当代人工制品的一两个提示,并从不同的角度推断他们自己的文化。

该活动甚至可以与时事联系在一起。我们在学校有海报要求学生“戴口罩”。与孩子们分享这样的东西。如果研究人员从现在开始的博物馆遇到了这种文物,他们会怎么看?

When working with artifacts, consider incorporating David Macaulay’sMotel of the Mysteries, a humorous children’s book about an archaeologist in the future who discovers an American motel room from 1985 and tries to understand its artifacts (he assumes that the TV, for instance, is an altar).

为了鼓励高级工作和问责制,请使用具有明确目标的标题。例如,您可能会要求进行分析,其中包括对技术进行推断。进行自己的分析并展示课程,或分享示例性工作,以便学生知道他们的要求。国家档案馆和国会图书馆提供的模板也可以帮助学生保持正轨。为了阻止学生进行肤浅的分析,请为他们提供特定的问题以回答或学习目标。

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  • 批判性思考
  • Inquiry-Based Learning
  • Teaching Strategies
  • 社会研究/历史
  • 6-8 Middle School
  • 9-12高中

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